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肺癌晚期症状

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肺癌转移有哪些症状

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    因为肺癌极易在早期发生远处转移,因而与远处转移有关的症状往往是医生或患者发现的首发症状。若病灶转移到脑,则可产生持续性头痛、视朦。继续发展可能导致意识模糊甚至癫痫。这种头痛的性质与普通的紧张性头痛无明显差别,因此极易被人们忽视。视力模糊主要表现为读报或看电视感到困难。因为大多数肺癌患者为老年人,他们往往误以为自己只需更换眼镜罢了,而其关键却在于视力性质的改变。最初对意识和视力的改变是非常敏感的。
  若癌症转移到骨,则会导致骨质破坏,当破坏到一定程度时,骨痛也随之产生。若外层坚硬的骨皮质发生破坏,则可使骨质结构极不稳定。发生于肋骨的可有不适感,但若发生于负荷较大的长骨如股骨或肱骨,则日常活动中也极易发生骨折。
  最后,也是最棘手的,即肺癌已发生脊柱的转移。在大多数患者,发生脊柱转移可引起疼痛。但问题在于,癌症可进一步转移至脊髓。这将首先表现为背痛,继之传至下肢,可有下肢无力、大小便失禁,最终可导致转移点以下部位瘫痪。因此,重度吸烟患者若出现背痛也应引起足够重视。
  然而,最常见的远处转移或全身转移症状是乏力、消瘦。发生远处转移的患者都有不明原因的消瘦,这往往发生于食欲下降之前,且即使增加食欲也无济于事。
  (四)体征
  1、局限性哮鸣音为局限性哮鸣音,多为吸气阶段出现,咳嗽后并不消失。
  2、声音嘶哑 淋巴结转移压迫或侵犯喉返神经时出现。
  3、上腔静脉综合症 肿瘤压迫或侵犯上腔静脉,静脉回流受阻,产生头面、颈、上肢水肿,上胸部静脉曲张并水肿,伴头晕、胸闷、气急等症状。
  4、Horner’s综合征肺尖癌压迫或侵犯颈交感神经节时,出现患侧眼球凹陷,上睑下垂、瞳孔缩小、眼裂狭窄、患侧上半胸部皮肤温度升高、无汗等。
  5、肩臂疼痛 肺尖癌压迫或侵犯臂丛神经时,出现该侧肩部及上肢放射状灼热疼痛。
  6、膈神经麻痹 膈神经受侵时出现气急胸闷
  7、吞咽困难 纵隔淋巴结肿大压迫食管所致,压迫气管可致呼吸困难。
  8、心包受侵 心包受侵时出现心包积液,气急,心律失常,心功能不全等。
  9、胸膜转移 可见胸痛,癌性胸水等。
  10、肺癌转移 肺癌的血行转移常见部位依次是骨、肝、脑、肾、肾上腺、皮下组织等,另外肺癌内转移也较常见。临床随转移部位不同而有相应的症状、体征。
  11、肺外体征 常见有四肢关节疼痛或肥大、杵状指,多发性神经炎,重症肌无力,库欣病、男性乳房增生肥大、高钙血症、精神异常等。

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==== 汉译英 ====

What are the symptoms of lung cancer metastasis

Because lung cancer can easily occur at an early stage of distant metastasis, and therefore distant metastasis-related symptoms are often found in doctors or in patients with initial symptoms. If the lesions transferred to the brain, may give rise to persistent headaches, visual indistinct. Continue to develop could lead to confusion or even seizures. The nature of this headache, tension headache and common no significant difference, it can easily be overlooked. Blurred vision, manifested mainly find it difficult to read a newspaper or watch television. Because most patients with lung cancer for the elderly, they often mistakenly think that they only need to replace the glasses fills the key lies in its visual nature of the change. Initial awareness and changes in vision are very sensitive.
If the cancer metastasis to the bone, can lead to bone damage, when damage to a certain extent, the pain also arose. If the outer layer of hard cortical bone destruction took place, will enable the bone structure of highly volatile. May have occurred in rib discomfort, but occurred in a large load of long bones such as femur or humerus, then the daily activities are also vulnerable to fractures.
Finally, and most difficult, namely, the transfer of lung cancer have occurred in the spine. In most patients, spinal metastasis occurred can cause pain. But the problem is, cancer can be further transferred to the spinal cord. This will be the first manifested as back pain, followed by spread to my limbs, may have lower limb weakness, incontinence, could eventually lead to the transfer of paralysis below the site. Therefore, heavy smoking in patients with low back pain, if there should also pay sufficient attention to.
However, the most common symptoms of distant metastasis, or systemic metastasis is a weakness, weight loss. Distant metastasis has occurred in patients with unexplained weight loss, which often occurs before the loss of appetite, and even increase the appetite of no help.
(D) signs
1, the limitations of the limitations of Wheezing Wheezing, mostly for inspiratory phase of the emergence of post-cough did not disappear.
2, a hoarse voice of oppression or violation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node metastasis occurs.
3, superior vena cava syndrome, tumor compression or encroachment on the vena cava, venous obstruction, resulting in head, face, neck, upper extremity edema, varicose veins on the chest, and edema, accompanied by dizziness, chest tightness, shortness of breath and other symptoms.
4, Horner's syndrome, apical cancer cervical sympathetic ganglion of oppression or violation occurs when the eye ipsilateral depression, ptosis, miosis, eye fissure narrow, ipsilateral upper chest skin temperature, sweat-free and so on.
5, Jianbi apical cancer pain, oppression or violation of the brachial plexus, the emergence of the radial side of the shoulder and upper limb pain and heartburn.
6, phrenic nerve paralysis of the phrenic nerve invasion chest tightness, shortness of breath when
7, dysphagia, esophageal compression due to mediastinal lymph nodes, tracheal compression can cause breathing difficulties.
8, pericardial invasion pericardial invasion occurs when pericardial effusion, dyspnea, arrhythmia, cardiac insufficiency and so on.
9, malignant pleural effusion can be seen chest pain, malignant pleural effusion and so on.
10, the blood of lung cancer metastasis lung cancer common site of metastasis followed by bone, liver, brain, kidney, adrenal gland, subcutaneous tissue, etc. In addition, within lung cancer metastasis is also more common. With the transfer of clinical sites corresponding to different symptoms and signs.
11, extrapulmonary signs common with limb joint pain or enlargement, clubbing, multiple neuritis, myasthenia gravis, Cushing's disease, male breast hypertrophy, hypercalcemia, mental disorders.

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更新日期: 2009-12-17 01:53
作者: : mcyclub
修订: 1.1

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