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ID #1218

吸烟患肺癌机率高7-11倍

  吸烟———
  癌症第一诱因
  最新统计显示,自上世纪70年代以来,癌症发病在我国持续增长,近年来增势尤猛,发病率年均上升3%,每4至5名死者就有1人死于癌症,癌症已成我国一些省市城乡居民的首位死因,而且处于最佳劳动状态的20至60岁癌症患者明显增多,年轻化趋势明显。另有调查表明,我国吸烟人口众多,占世界烟民总数的1/3,15岁以上男性吸烟率高达近70%。我国学生烟民近年来快速增加,有22.5%的中小学生尝试过吸烟,有75%的16岁以上高中生、大学生吸烟,初始吸烟平均年龄仅10.7岁,比1984年显著降低,吸烟人群不断扩大。

  海空两路袭击
  烟魔引发八成肺癌
  “癌症发病与人群吸烟状况两者变化趋势一致,这绝非巧合。”肿瘤专家接受记者采访时表示,癌症确切病因虽然尚不完全清楚,但国内外大量研究表明,吸烟与癌症关系极为密切。我国卫生部2003年印发的《中国癌症预防与控制规划纲要(2004年—2010年)》中表明,在导致癌症的4大危险因素中,吸烟名列榜首,其次才依次为乙肝病毒感染、膳食不合理和职业危害。专家介绍说,烟草点燃后会散发出40多种已知致癌物质,这些物质通过“海、空”两路危害人体,被呼吸道吸收进入血液到达全身的可谓“水路”,直接作用于呼吸道及消化系统的可谓“空路”,两路共同作用,大大增加了患癌危险。大量研究显示,吸烟者比不吸烟者患癌危险要高7至11倍,肺癌、喉癌、咽癌、口腔癌、食管癌等超过1/3癌症的发生与吸烟密切相关。
  吸烟是目前国际公认的导致肺癌的最主要因素,据估计,约80%的肺癌由吸烟引起。现已证明肺癌与吸烟的开始年龄、烟龄、每天吸烟量、烟种类均有关系,长期吸烟者患肺癌的危险是不吸烟者的10倍。在我国,吸烟是男性肺癌的最主要危险因素,香烟消耗量的增加直接导致了男性肺癌发病率和死亡率的增多。
  被动吸烟的危害同样大。大量研究表明,丈夫吸烟的女性比丈夫不吸烟者患癌危险至少高30%,而且丈夫吸烟程度越深,与丈夫共同生活时间越长,这一危险越高。这是因为,香烟点燃后外冒的烟与吸入的烟相比,一些致癌物质的含量更高,如一氧化碳含量高5倍,焦油和尼古丁高3倍,苯高4倍,氨高46倍,亚硝胺高50倍,这些物质被不吸烟者经鼻吸入呼吸道后,一样可损害气管上皮细胞,诱发癌变。

  致癌主要外因
  远离烟草最安全
  吸烟后烟雾要先经过口腔、咽、喉等器官,才会到达肺、消化道等,因而,吸烟是诱发口腔、咽、喉等头颈部癌症的最主要危险因素,其危险性仅次于肺癌。目前在哈医大附属肿瘤医院接受治疗的口腔、咽、喉等头颈癌症患者中有90%是烟民,而且大多是老烟民。国外也有研究显示,88%至98%的喉癌患者有长期吸烟史,其中50%以上每天吸烟超过20支;在因喉癌死亡者中,每天吸烟40支以上者是不吸烟者的13倍。
  生活中很多人觉得“有人吸烟几十年,照样活到八九十岁,而有人不抽烟也得肺癌,所以烟该抽就抽,别管这么多。”肿瘤专家介绍,吸烟者确实不一定都患癌,但吸烟确确实实会大幅增加患癌的危险,临床上绝大多数肺癌、喉癌患者都是烟民。癌症确切病因还不明确,但癌症之所以发生不外乎内因和外因,内因即自身基因因素,外因就是外部环境因素,包括吸烟、饮食等。若内因不具备外因也不会起作用,这就是为什么有人怎么抽烟都不会患癌的原因,而若只有内因而没有外因,也会大大减少患癌的危险。人们不可能知道自己是否具有癌症易患性,所以远离烟草就是最大限度减少外因、预防癌症的最佳方法。

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==== 汉译英 ====
Smoking ---
The first incentive cancer
The latest statistics show that since the last century since the 70s, the incidence of cancer in our continued growth, growth momentum in recent years, Yau-mang, the incidence rate of annual increase of 3%, every 4-5 there is a deceased person died of cancer, cancer has become Some provinces and urban and rural residents in China's first cause of death, and in the best working state of cancer patients aged 20 to 60 increased significantly, younger evident. Another survey showed that China's smoking population, the total number of the world's smokers 1 / 3, 15 years old male smoking rate has reached nearly 70%. In recent years China's rapid increase in student smokers, 22.5% of the students have tried smoking, 75% over the 16-year-old high school students smoke, the average age of initial smoking is only 10.7 years, significantly lower than in 1984, smokers continue to expand.

Sea and air attacks
Magic smoke caused Ba Cheng Lung Cancer
"Cancer incidence and population trends consistent with both smoking status, it is no coincidence." Cancer experts interviewed said the exact causes of cancer, although not entirely clear, but a large number of domestic and international research shows that smoking and cancer is extremely closely. China's Ministry of Health issued in 2003, "Chinese Journal of Cancer Prevention and Control Plan (2004 -2,010)," and in that cause cancer in 4 major risk factors, smoking is ranked first, followed by hepatitis B virus infection was followed, Dietary unreasonable and occupational hazards. According to experts, the tobacco lit, emit more than 40 known carcinogens, these substances through the "sea and air" two-way harm the human body, being absorbed into the blood respiratory tract to reach the body can be described as "water", directly on the respiratory tract and the digestive system can be described as "empty path" two-way interaction, significantly increased cancer risk. A large number of studies have shown that cancer risk in smokers than non-smokers is higher from 7 to 11 times, lung cancer, laryngeal cancer, pharyngeal cancer, oral cancer, esophageal cancer and other more than 1 / 3 of cancer is closely related to smoking.
Smoking is the internationally recognized cause of lung cancer the most important factor, it is estimated that about 80% of lung cancer caused by smoking. Has proved to be the beginning of the age of lung cancer and smoking, smoking, daily smoking, tobacco types have relations, long-term smokers risk of lung cancer is 10 times the non-smokers. In China, smoking is the most important risk factor for male lung cancer, tobacco consumption is a direct result of increase in male lung cancer incidence and mortality increase.
As great as the dangers of passive smoking. Numerous studies show that smoking husbands than husbands of female non-smokers at least 30% higher cancer risk, but also the deeper the extent of smoking husband, and her husband live longer, the higher the risk. This is because the risk of foreign cigarettes lit and inhaled tobacco smoke compared to higher levels of some carcinogens, such as carbon monoxide 5 times, 3 times higher tar and nicotine, benzene, 4 times higher, 46 times higher ammonia , nitrosamines 50 times higher, these substances were non-smokers after nasal inhalation of respiratory tract, as can damage the airway epithelial cells, induced cancer.

Cancer of the external factors
Away from tobacco safest
After the first smoke after smoking mouth, pharynx, larynx and other organs, will reach the lungs, digestive tract, etc. Thus, smoking is induced in the mouth, pharynx, larynx and other head and neck cancer, the most important risk factor, the second most dangerous in lung cancer. Cancer Hospital in Ha Yida currently receiving treatment in the mouth, pharynx, larynx and other head and neck cancer patients, 90% were smokers, and smokers are mostly old. Abroad studies have shown that 88% to 98% of laryngeal cancer patients have a long history of smoking, of which 50% of daily smokers over 20; in death due to throat cancer in smokers 40 or more per day is smokers 13 times.
Life, many people think, "It was smoking for decades, still live to 89 years old, but some people do not smoke get lung cancer too, so that the pumping on the pumping smoke, do not care so much." Cancer experts, smokers do does not have cancer, but smoking will indeed increase the risk of cancer, the majority of clinical lung cancer, laryngeal cancer patients are smokers. The exact cause of cancer is not clear, but the reason why cancer occurs no more than internal and external, internal or self-genetic factors, external factors are external environmental factors, including smoking, diet and so on. If the internal and external factors will not work does not have, which is why it was not how smoking causes cancer, but only in so if there is no external cause, will greatly reduce the risk of cancer. It is impossible to know whether the cancer susceptibility, so stay away from tobacco is to minimize external factors, the best way to prevent cancer.

Tags: 吸烟患肺癌机率高7-11倍

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更新日期: 2010-04-11 05:45
作者: : mcyclub
修订: 1.0

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